Male circumcision is the surgical removal of some or all of the foreskin (prepuce) from the penis.
Circumcision is used therapeutically, as one of the treatment options for a number of penile conditions. In addition, non-therapeutic circumcisions are commonly performed for social, cultural, religious, or prophylactic reasons. One analysis of studies done in Africa indicates that circumcision reduces the risk of HIV infection in heterosexual men by 38-66%. The WHO currently recommends circumcision be part of a comprehensive program for prevention of HIV transmission in areas with high endemic rates of HIV.
There is controversy regarding circumcision. Areas of controversy have included the health benefits and risks of the procedure, ethical and legal considerations, and the application of human rights principles to the practice.
Adult circumcisions are often performed under local anasthesia in day care setting. It is an office procedure but requires four to six weeks of abstinence from masturbation or intercourse after the operation to allow the wound to heal.